Gastric Intubation (drainage)
Gastric intubation (or drainage) implies the introduction of a tube (probe) into the stomach for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is used to examine gastric content if any diseases of the stomach or duodenum are suspected, as well as in some other pathological conditions associated with impaired gastric secretion. Gastric intubation is the main method to determine the most vital functions of the stomach: secretory, acid-forming and enzyme-forming functions.
The procedure is performed with a help of a thin probe, allowing evaluation of the gastric juice at various stages of the gastrointestinal digestion process. First, the content of the stomach is taken when it’s empty (no food has been eaten), and then the gastric juice produced in response to the stimulating action of the probe is collected. In order to get the gastric juice produced during digestion, the stomach is stimulated with the help of specific medicines.
Gastric intubation should be performed in the fasted state. The patient may have a light dinner in the evening before the test. This test is contraindicated in patients with gastric bleedings, aortic aneurysm, stenosis and diverticulosis of the esophagus, as well as severe pathologies of the cardiovascular system. Also, the procedure must not be carried out in pregnant patients.
Duodenal Intubation (drainage)
Duodenal intubation (or drainage) implies the introduction of a special probe into the duodenum. It is carried out to obtain duodenum content, which consists mainly of bile and pancreatic juice. The analysis of the duodenum content and observation of its production dynamics provide information concerning the functional state of the duodenum, pancreas, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, and in some cases it can help detect disorders of these organs.
Bile discharged from the lumen of the duodenum, then from the gallbladder and, finally, produced during the procedure is collected into vials and sent for analysis. Laboratory tests of the duodenal content include the evaluation of its physical and chemical characteristics as well as microscopic study.
This procedure should be carried out in the fasted state, not earlier than 10-12 hours after the last meal or liquid intake. If the patient has a tendency to increase gas-formation, then fruit, vegetables, milk, rye bread and fizzy drinks should be avoided within 2-3 days before the procedure. Also, during these days it is recommended that activated carbon be consumed as it helps reduce the amount of gas in the intestine.