Biological causes of GIT disorder


Microorganisms


microorganismsThe group of Enterobacteriaceae includes such microorganisms as Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Proteus, Morganella, Providencia, Yersinia. Some of these bacteria normally inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of humans, but when there is some decrease in the protection properties of the intestine mucosa, they may cause infections of the digestive system and other organs. Others inhibit soil, water or parasitize various plants and animals, when they penetrate into the digestive tract, they cause infectious diseases accompanied by diarrhea, high temperature, vomiting.

Helicobacter pylori are another cause of the gastrointestinal disorders. When they are in the stomach, they start generating ammonia, which, being an alkali, neutralizes hydrochloric acid and creates favorable conditions for microorganisms. Using its enzymes these bacteria thins and destroys the shielding mucus of the stomach, penetrates into the epithelial cells of the mucosa and attaches to them. They start multiplying rapidly and occupy new parts of the stomach surface destroying the mucosa cells with the help of their enzymes and toxins. An inflammatory process is developed, and it leads to atrophy of the glandular cells all over the gastric mucosa, development of dystrophic processes and constant decreases in stomach digestive function. Having lost its protective mucus the lining of the stomach is exposed to the aggressive attack of the hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes of the gastric juice which leads to the progression of gastritis, gastric ulcers and erosions.

Microbial toxins


Microbial toxins

The group of conditions caused by microbial toxins is called food toxicoinfections. These are acute intestinal infectious conditions induced by eating food in which various opportunistic pathogens have multiplied and, thus, it accumulated a lot of their toxins. For example, enterotoxins may cause illness even when the bacteria that produced them are already dead (botulism). These conditions are characterized by sudden onset, intoxication and gastroenteritis. In most of the cases patients experience severe attacks of diarrhea, vomiting, high temperature and fatigue.



Helminths


HelminthsIt’s a large group of lower worms that can live in the human body and cause parasitic diseases called helminth infections. These worms most often live in the gastrointestinal tract, and different species choose different parts or the tract, thus, large roundworms live in the initial part of the small intestine, pinworms – in the lower parts of the small intestine and initial parts of the large intestine.

Complications of the helminth infections are primarily associated with the mechanic impact on the organ and damage of the tissues that sometimes may cause death. Helminths, their larvae and eggs tear and pierce tissues of the intestine. Concomitant bacterial infections in the damaged parts of the organ are common complications that mask parasite presence. Parasites secrete anticoagulants that prevent blood clotting creating bleeding wounds with necrosis on the walls of the intestine. Larvae trying to penetrate into the blood stream damage small intestine villi that absorb nutrients and trace elements. Helminths enhance the growth of Helicobacter pylori (bacteria that causes gastritis, ulcers and stomach cancer) in the stomach. Such parasites may be the cause of gastrointestinal tumors and cysts of the endocrine glands.


Vitamin deficiency or excess


Vitamins

Too little or too much of certain vitamins may have a negative impact on gastrointestinal tracts. For example, too much vitamin C may provoke   diarrhea, colicky pains, and flatulence, as well as severe allergic reactions and renal disorders. Lack of vitamin D may promote such inflammatory gastrointestinal condition as Crohn’s disease, and in children cause rickets; deficiency of vitamin B12 may induce loss of appetite, diarrhea or constipation and also a severe anemia called B12 deficiency anemia; lack of vitamin B5 may cause diarrhea and other symptoms.

Gastrointestinal tracts are affected by various factors, both internal and external. And can get out of balance without proper care. The results of such imbalances can produce symptoms ranging from annoying to dangerous.  Thus, it’s reasonable to monitor digestive processes, and to seek medical advice for any persistent digestive problems.


 

 

 

 

 

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